Instead of encouraging British industry, they argued that it discouraged English manufactures and encouraged competing industries in the colonies. ." Should you look closely at pictures to see facial expressions? Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/townshend-acts-1.  After debate, the Repeal Act received the Royal Assent on 12 April 1770.. Townshend revenues and seizures of goods would pay for this new system. Balik, Shelby; Dickerson, O. M. "Townshend Acts An increased amount of troops being stationed in New York presented an unexpected financial burden for the colony. All other commercial laws had been intended to protect some industry within the empire. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1949. January 1766 – New York refuses to comply with the August 1766 – Charles Townshend assumed the position of Chancellor of the Exchequer. The Boston Tea Party soon followed, which set the stage for the American Revolution. Lewiston, Mass. "The Townshend Acts crisis, 1767–1770." And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid that if any action or suit shall be commenced, either in Great Britain or America, against any person or persons for anything done in pursuance of this act, the defendant or defendants in such action or suit may plead the general issue and give this act and the special matter in evidence at any trial to be had thereupon; and that the same was done in pursuance and by the authority of this act. He also created new Courts of Admiralty in the colonies, which could try accused smugglers without a jury, and established a Customs Board that could issue writs of assistance giving customs officers broad powers to search and seize colonists' property.  Dickinson warned colonists not to concede to the taxes just because the rates were low, since this would set a dangerous precedent. Chronological events of the Townshend Acts. And whereas the allowing a drawback of all the duties of customs upon the exportation from this kingdom of coffee and cocoa nuts, the growth of the British dominions in America may be a means of encouraging the growth of coffee and cocoa in the said dominions, be it therefore enacted by the authority aforesaid that from and after the said twentieth day of November, one thousand seven hundred and sixty-seven, upon the exportation of any coffee or cocoa nuts, of the growth or produce of any British colony or plantation in America, from this kingdom as merchandise, the whole duties of customs payable upon the importation of such coffee or cocoa nuts shall be drawn back and repaid in such manner, and under such rules, regulations, penalties, and forfeitures as any drawback or allowance, payable out of the duties of customs upon the exportation of such coffee or cocoa nuts, was, could, or might be paid before the passing of this act; any law, custom, or usage to the contrary notwithstanding. The Townshend Acts accomplished four things. In 1767 Parliament decided to reduce the property tax in England. During June and July 1767, the British parliament passed a series of four laws known as the Townshend Acts. , Townshend knew that his program would be controversial in the colonies, but he argued that, "The superiority of the mother country can at no time be better exerted than now. Chaffin, Robert J.  With this in mind, Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, devised a plan that placed new duties on paper, paint, lead, glass, and tea that were imported into the colonies. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. Historians vary slightly as to which acts they include under the heading "Townshend Acts", but five are often listed: The Townshend Acts, or Townshend Duties, tried to establish the British Parliament's right to tax the American colonies. And whereas by an act made in the twenty-first year of the reign of his late Majesty, entitled, An act for permitting tea to be exported to Ireland, and his Majesty's plantations in America, without paying the inland duties charged thereupon by an act of the eighteenth year of his present Majesty's reign; and for enlarging the time for some of the payments to be made on the subscription of six millions three hundred thousand pounds, by virtue of an act of this session of Parliament, it is enacted, that from and after the first day of June, one thousand seven hundred and forty-eight, no tea should be exported to the kingdom of Ireland, or to any of his Majesty's plantations in America, in any chest, cask, tub, or package whatsoever, other than that in which it was originally imported into Great Britain, nor in any less quantities than in the entire lot or lots in which the same was sold at the sale of the said united company, under the penalty of the forfeiture of such tea and the package containing the same; and whereas the prohibiting the exportation of tea in any less quantity than one entire lot has been very inconvenient to merchants and traders and tends to discourage the exportation of tea to Ireland, and the said colonies; be it therefore enacted by the authority aforesaid, that from and after the fifth day of July, one thousand seven hundred and sixty-seven, the said recited clause shall be, and is hereby, repealed. Tyler, John W. Smugglers and Patriots: Boston Merchants and the Advent of the American Revolution. The Board was created to enforce shipping regulations and increase tax revenue. ." The Farmer's Letters expressed colonial objection to the acts. And for the more effectual preventing the clandestine running of goods in the British dominions in America, be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid that from and after the said twentieth day of November, one thousand seven hundred and sixty-seven, the master or other person having or taking the charge or command of every ship or vessel arriving in any British colony or plantation in America shall, before he proceeds with his vessel to the place of unlading, come directly to the customhouse for the port of district where he arrives and make a just and true entry, upon oath, before the collector and comptroller, or other principal officer of the customs there, of the burthen [burden], contents, and lading of such ship or vessel with the particular marks, numbers, qualities, and contents of every parcel of goods therein laden, to the best of his knowledge; also where and in what port she took in her lading; of what country built; how manned; who was master during the voyage, and who are owners thereof; and whether any and what goods during the course of such voyage had or had not been discharged out of such ship or vessel, and where: and the master or other person having or taking the charge or command of every ship or vessel going out from any British colony or plantation in America, before he shall take in or suffer to be taken into or laden on board any such ship or vessel any goods, wares, or merchandises to be exported shall in like manner enter and report outwards such ship or vessel, with her names and burden, of what country built, and how manned, with the names of the master and owners thereof, and to what port or place he intends to pass or sail. This tax cut in England would be partially offset by the new Revenue Act taxes on tea in the colonies. In fact, the modification of the Townshend Duties Act was scarcely any change at all..  The possibility that American colonists might be arrested and sent to England for trial produced alarm and outrage in the colonies. A third aspect of the legislation involved the disbanding of the New York legislature. Historian Robert Chaffin argued that little had actually changed: It would be inaccurate to claim that a major part of the Townshend Acts had been repealed. Source: Danby Pickering, ed., The Statutes at Large from Magna Carta to the End of the Eleventh Parliament of Great Britain, Anno 1761: Continued, vol. Commager, Henry Steele. With John Adams serving as his lawyer, Hancock was prosecuted in a highly publicized trial by a vice-admiralty court, but the charges were eventually dropped. For every hundredweight avoirdupois of white lead, two shillings. It created a new Customs Board for the North American colonies, to be headquartered in Boston with five customs commissioners. Cambridge, Mass.
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