why do demoiselle cranes migrate

India is a winter home for most of the Siberian birds such as Siberian Cranes,Greater Flamingo and Demoiselle Crane, also numerous species of birds from other region of the world. The iris is red and the beak is olive at the base, yellowish at the middle and orange at the tip. BirdLife International. Cranes of all ages, paired and unpaired, dance. Found in several scattered areas of North America, Sandhill Cranes reach their peak abundance at migratory stopover points on the Great Plains. Download free teacher guides to keep students learning in a hands-on way: includes vocabulary, classroom activities, goals and objectives. produced at the captive facility either remain in captivity to maintain the in Environmental Studies. Hear animal sounds for animals like anteaters, dolphins, frogs and more. More. Demoiselle cranes gather in large flocks to migrate. The mid-day sees them collecting for a short drink, punctuated by an occasional bath or an acrobatic, almost ballet-like, displaying of mutual affection between couples, a sight to behold. 6. Demoiselle cranes will often fake a wing injury to lure predators away from their nests. White ear tufts circle the sides and back of head. When it comes to bird conservation against all odds, few can match the spirit and generosity of the residents of the small hamlet of Khichan which is 140 km west of the "Blue City" of Jodhpur renowned the world over for its palaces, forts, temples and local bazaars. The demoiselle crane has long legs, a long neck and a long, compressed bill. During the day, cranes can be spotted feeding and dancing in nearby harvested farm fields. The fall migration of sandhill cranes is from mid/late October to late November. The Demoiselle Crane is the smallest species of crane. At SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment, we extend our commitment to the environment beyond our company by supporting a variety of conservation groups and programs. These birds tend to form life-long monogamous pair bonds. The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations are decreasing, stable or have unknown trends. npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/birds/cranes/anthvirg.htm#habitat, zoo.org/educate/fact_sheets/dem_crane/dcrane.htm. Demoiselle Cranes, the smallest crane species, migrate over the Himalayas, crossing the mountain range at an altitude of … During the months they are at Khichan, the villagers take care of the birds by feeding them grain at specially built enclosures or chugga ghars, and ensuring that they are safe from dogs and other predators. Males and females are similar in appearance, with females tending to be a bit smaller in size. For about a month each March, more than 500,000 sandhill cranes converge on the Platte River basin in Nebraska to rest and eat before they finish their migration to their northern breeding grounds. Roosting marshes are closed to the public. During migration, these cranes will fly with their head and neck straight and their feet and legs straight behind them. But let’s see how they do it. World: the migratioN of the demoiselle craNes DemoIselle crAne fActs… • Demoiselles are the smallest of the cranes, just 3 ft (90 cm) tall and weighing 4–7 lbs (2–3 kg) • they have a wing span of 1 ft 6 in (50 cm) • they live mainly in grassland areas near water but can be found in deserts where water is available These cranes make one of the toughest migrations in the world by crossing the Himalayas and have literally changed the landscape of Khichan. View a property map (PDF). Sandhill cranes are on their way south to Texas, New Mexico, Mexico, … Black-necked Crane migration study 2005-2007 (404.66 KB) Sandhill Cranes ICF’s Western Crane Conservation Program is tracking the migration of banded Lesser Sandhill Cranes from Homer, Alaska. In the end, the reasons why birds migrate all come down to survival: not just the survival of the migrating birds themselves, but also the survival of the chicks they will raise. Then a gentle soul, Ratanlal Maloo, returned to his home village from his work place in another state and along with his wife took to feeding sacks full of grain to birds (all kinds), believing it to be his duty as a devout Jain. They group together in great numbers, filling the air with distinctive rolling cries. The demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) is a species of crane found in central Eurosiberia, ranging from the Black Sea to Mongolia and North Eastern China. Both sexes, mature and immature, take part in the dances. They range in size from the demoiselle crane, which measures 90 cm (35 in) in length, to the sarus crane, which can be up to 176 cm (69 in), although the heaviest is the red-crowned crane, which can weigh 12 kg (26 lb) prior to migrating. Migratory Demoiselle Cranes, so called because of their delicate and maiden-like appearance, flock to this sleepy village, tucked away in a corner of the Thar Desert, in huge numbers in the winter months making for an amazing spectacle. They are long-legged and long-necked birds with streamlined bodies and large, rounded wings. Demoiselle cranes have red eyes and relatively short ivory colored beaks with grey and pink markings. Migration between wintering grounds in the south and breeding grounds in the north has likely taken Sandhill Cranes across what is now Nebraska for many thousands, if not millions, of years. They are able to reach heights of 4,875 to 7,925 m (16,000 to 26,000 ft.). They have black legs. The once obscure village has now become one of the most favoured bird-watching vacation hotspots in India. Flock of thousands of Demoisellle Cranes flying over Rajasthan, India. Demoiselle cranes the smallest crane species migrate over the himalayas crossing the mountain range at an altitude of up to 26 000 feet to reach their wintering areas in india. The birds eat corn from the grain fields and then sleep on the sandbars. As the number of Demoiselle cranes increased, the couple got assistance from some volunteering school children. That is, until the efforts of Sevaram Mali Parihar and fellow locals turned things around. These cranes are migratory birds. Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry, and Conservation. Bird-watching buffs can feast on these and other spectacular sights during the winter months. 7. Demoiselle cranes gather in large flocks to migrate. Their migration is so long and hard that many die from fatigue, hunger, or predation from birds of prey. The call of the Demoiselle Crane is a high-pitched trumpet. How? These beautiful birds migrate to India every year during the winter and summer season for food, breeding and nesting. Once in the air they immediately form a disciplined order led by the female, followed closely by up to two sub-adults, brought up by the male and start calling. Nicola Shepherd, founder and CEO of The Exploration Company, organises unusual trips for HNW and UHNW clients ranging from birthday parties at an Indian Maharajah's palace to reliving Sir Vivian Fuchs's 1950s expedition to the South Pole. Demoiselles are very territorial when nesting, and will protect their nest vigorously. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22692081A131927771.en. Both sexes look alike. Audio: Sandhill Cranes during fall migration (.wav file) Slideshow: Sandhill Cranes, 2009 migration They depart their northern breeding grounds in early fall and return in spring. Cranes do not recognize political boundaries during migration which unites diverse countries under the common goal of safeguarding cranes. Find quick information and fun facts with these 1-page easy resources about animals from A to Z. Unlike the spring migration, we do not get a large concentration of sandhill cranes during the fall migration. Cranes are very large birds, often considered the world's tallest flying birds. These beautiful birds migrate to India every year during the winter and summer season for food, breeding, and nesting. The global population is estimated to number from 230,000 to 261,000 individuals. Learn more about the Seasonal Camp Counselor program at SeaWorld. As the cranes get to satiate their hunger pangs in the feeding home, they don’t ravage the crops in the region, thereby averting a potential conflict with humans. They have also been documented in Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Pakistan, and India. Meanwhile, in Europe this species’ population is estimated between 9,700 and 13,300 pairs (19,400-26,500 mature individuals). Dept. Come with us on an unforgettable journey behind the scenes during a SeaWorld or Busch Gardens Camp. Are you wild about whales? Whether stepping singly across a wet meadow or filling the sky by the hundreds and thousands, Sandhill Cranes have an elegance that draws attention. The village, even achieved international recognition when it was featured in the Birding World magazine in an article titled, “Khichan - the Demoiselle Crane village". Thousands of sandhill cranes have arrived at Whitewater Draw east of Tombstone as part of an annual migration. Finding richer food sources, seeking safer habitats, and avoiding predators are all migration behaviors designed to ensure breeding success. Cranes use three migratory routes. Even veteran bird-watchers and ornithologists, familiar with congregation of various species of birds in different parts of the world, affirm that the congregation of Demoiselle cranes in Khichan is the most dramatic congregation of the winged beauties they have ever seen. Migration of Birds in India: India is a winter home for most of the Siberian birds such as Siberian Cranes, Greater Flamingo, and Demoiselle Crane, also numerous species of birds from other regions of the world. The legs and toes are black, as are the primary and secondary flight feathers, and the tail feathers are gray with black tips. And because they are so conspicuous, tracking Whooping Crane migrations can help other bird species by providing clues into how and why migration times are changing. Crazy about roller coasters? Up to 5,000 kilograms of bird seed are consumed every day by the birds. India is a winter home for most of the Siberian birds such as Siberian Cranes,Greater Flamingo and Demoiselle Crane, also numerous species of birds from other region of the world. Besides these dainty cranes, grey heron, great egret, northern pintail, northern shoveller, black winged stilts, Temmick's stint, tufted duck, spotted redshank, common redshank, common sandpiper, rock pigeons, white- throated kingfisher, Indian pond heron and other species of birds can be sighted at Khichan especially around the village pond which forms one of the few sources of water in this arid land. Only the sandhill crane is more numerous. Ten cranes were captured and marked on the Kenai Peninsula, near Homer, in August 2008. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. So are we! The spectacle of tens of thousands of these cranes flying against the background of the snow-white surface of the mountains is truly magnificent. Birds from western Eurasia will spend the winter in Africa whilst the birds from Asia, Mongolia and China will spend the winter in the Indian subcontinent. Good slow motion stock footage of migratory Demoiselle Cranes gather at Khichan Village, Rajasthan, India. during level, flapping flight, but prefer to soar, especially during migration. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Birds. Description. However, considering where the breeding and wintering grounds are, it would not be surprising if some common cranes are mixed in with them. They face the sun, their tie-like black chest feathers contrasting with the blue winter sky. Found in eastern and central Asia, Demoiselle Cranes migrate for the winter to north eastern Africa, India and Pakistan, and can do so in their tens of thousands. The people of SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment are truly and deeply driven to inspire on behalf of, to celebrate and connect with, and to care for the natural world we all share. and A. Middleton. Anthropoides virgo. The demoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) is a species of crane … The crane spectacle is best seen at the Goose Pasture Viewing Area. The Demoiselle Crane, as other cranes, needs to run on the ground to reach speed and take off. © 2020 SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment, Inc. All Rights Reserved. This species has an extremely large range and can be found across central Asia from the northern Black Sea to China and Mongolia in the west. Perrins, C.M. The demoiselle crane, a bird named for its elegant appearance, was facing hurdles and population decline in the Indian town it migrates to. Of Int., Nat'l Bio. Its body is light bluish gray with light gray on the crown and along the back of the neck and the nape. Come face-to-face with the wonders of wildlife through species-focused episodes and related classroom activities. In some regions of Mongolia and India, they are considered lucky birds and are protected by local people. The IUCN Red List states that the total number of Demoiselle cranes is about 230,000-261,000 individuals. The birds perform ritualistic displays that include bows, leaps, runs, wing flapping, short flights, jerky bouncing, running, and stick tossing. Fall Migration. There is also a small breeding population in Turkey. The bond of the villagers with these avian visitors touches a chord among even the most cynical tourists. Only the sandhill crane is more numerous. Demoiselle cranes are the smallest of all crane species and the second most abundant. Cranes form lifelong, monogamous (only one partner) pairs. Downloaded on 20 February 2019. In the evenings as the cranes fly back to their resting grounds, the sky can darken and the air reverberates with their trumpeting call and the rush of air through curved wings as the glide in to land. Their migration is so long and hard that many die from fatigue, hunger, or predation from birds of prey. Any bird-watching tour to Rajasthan loses luster without a glimpse of Khichan’s winged royalty feeding right in the midst of the human settlement. Premium service from one of the world's most knowledgeable travel companies, Your holiday is fully protected by the Package Travel, Package Holidays & Package Tours Regulations 1992, Flight-Inclusive Bonding: We are licensed by the Civil Aviation Authority and hold ATOL Number 7159, Flight-Exclusive bonding: Your holiday is further protected by our membership of ABTOT Membership Number 5197, Fraser House, Southrop, Gloucestershire, GL7 3NR UK 9401 Overlea Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA, The Ultimate Explorer’s safari of Africa by Private Jet, Historic India and Maldives by Private Jet, 10 steps to the perfect Latin America holiday. A 3-4 week clerkship for veterinary students wanting to augment their knowledge and experience in non-domestic animal medicine. This migration gathers thousands of followers that say goodbye or welcome these birds in Sweden, the islands of the Baltic Sea and Germany. Diet Most sandhill cranes live in freshwater wetlands. The village, tucked away in a corner of the Thar Desert, still plays host to over 9,000 Demoiselle cranes every winter. In several Islamic regions, the birds are held in high regard because they are mentioned in the Koran. Demoiselle Cranes migrate over the Himalayan mountains before winter. The. Demoiselle Cranes migrate to Khichan from Eastern Europe. Cranes do not recognize political boundaries during migration, which unites diverse countries under the common goal of safeguarding cranes. The Demoiselle Crane can fly at altitudes up to 26,000 feet. The early spring gathering of Sandhills on the Platte River in Nebraska is among the greatest wildlife spectacles on the continent, with over a quarter of a million birds present at one time. Ellis, D. H., Gee, G. F., and C. Mirande. Other threats include disturbance due to rising human populations, intensive use of pesticides, and hunting for sport along the migration route in Afghanistan and Pakistan. We're friendly and available to chat. Females nest in a mass of vegetation on the ground or in shallow water and lay two or three eggs. The males and females do not vary in external appearance, but males tend to be slightly larger than females. Demoiselle cranes are protected by a few cultures in many parts of its range. The birds walk stiffly around each other with quick steps, wings half spread and alternately leaping high in the air. During the migration above the high mountains, it … 2018. It flies with deep, powerful wing beats, and alight in standing stance after approaching with dangling legs and spread wings and tail. In China there are about 100-10,000 breeding pairs, with 50-1,000 birds on migration. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22692081A131927771. Next, the cranes will pick up sticks or pieces of grass, throw them in the air, and stab at them with their beak as they come down. SeaWorld and Busch Gardens Conservation Fund. Cranes that breed in Europe use different migration routes on their way to the wintering grounds depending on the location of their breeding area. Initially, some 45 years ago, there were just about 100 of these cranes. In both its breeding and wintering ranges this species shows a preference for grassland habitats in close proximity to streams, shallow lakes and other wetlands, also frequenting desert areas where water is available. Feeds mainly on seeds and other plants; occasionally feeds on  insects. Find a variety of free classroom activities that will keep your students engaged and excited to learn about animals. Habitat loss and degradation from agriculture, intensification of agricultural methods and changes in agricultural practices is the primary threat to this species throughout its range. Some Demoiselle Cranes fly 1,860 miles each year from their breeding grounds in central Asia to India, where they spend the winter. Taken with tigers? Cranes typically run into the wind to achieve the lift necessary for flight, but if alarmed a crane can spring directly into flight. Flight and Migration. During this display, the cranes bow deeply and stretch. Their big size, combined with their behaviour, makes crane roosts a really attractive phenomenon. There is a small breeding population in Norfolk, a re-introduced population in Somerset and small numbers pass through Britain in spring and autumn. New York: Prentice Hall Press, 1990. International Crane Foundation: savingcranes.org/species/demi.asp. From fun and affordable field trips for students to amazing summer adventures, our camps combine education and entertainment in a way that connects people to the sea and sea life like nowhere else. One bird appears to be “dancing,” which is part of a courtship ritual. The bird is symbolically significant in the culture of India and Pakistan, where it is known as Koonj. Reach out to us anytime and we'll happily answer your questions. Serv., Washington, D.C. 1996. This feeding of birds by the villagers is based on sound ecological logic, too. The population is not severely fragmented. Demoiselle cranes are the smallest of all crane species and the second most abundant. The face and front of the neck is dark gray with long, pointed feathers hanging over the breast area. En route, more than three-fourths of all sandhill cranes use migratory staging areas in a single 75-mile stretch along Nebraska's Platte River. A short while later they depart in different directions in small family flocks. They live in family groups and frequent marshes, shallow lakes, and lagoons. One of the most beautiful natural phenomena in the United States is the annual congregation of the sandhill cranes. The crane is a huge, graceful, mainly grey bird with long legs, a long neck and drooping, curved tail feathers. Browse our extensive collection of zoological career infobooks including animal training, animal rescue and rehabilitation and zoo careers. Like other cranes, Demoiselle cranes are monogamous and form pairs for life. Stay at a wonderful boutique hotel in Jodhpur at the foot of the Mehrangarh Fort and travel out to see the cranes. Their mating dance is a spectacular display. (3) Crane species and migration routes : We think that most of the cranes involved in this trans - Himalaya migration are demoiselle cranes. Migration of Demoiselle Cranes Their breeding grounds are in Central Asia and the bulk of the population flies south to north western India congregating in vast flocks of 1000 - 3000 birds in the desert edged arid lands of Rajasthan and Gujarat with smaller groups spread across northern and central India. They are able to reach heights of 4,875 to 7,925 m (16,000 to 26,000 ft.). Birders and scientists have noticed that other birds, including Sandhill Cranes and a suite of songbirds, migrate earlier in the spring and later in the fall, too. Take a closer look at these encyclopedia books including information about animal habitats, behavior, and scientific classification. Cranes may fly as fast as 52 m.p.h. Take demoiselle cranes as an example; they migrate the peaks of the Himalayas, which rise 7,000-8,000 meters above the sea. These tall, gray-bodied, crimson-capped birds breed in open wetlands, fields, and prairies across North America. Word must have spread among the Demoiselle cranes in Mongolia and Eurasia, the lands of their birth that a feast awaited them in this nondescript Indian village and the number of these migratory birds thronging the village in October to March increased steadily every year, until their number touched a staggering 15,000 within two decades. Our overarching zoological mission is to foster conservation awareness and to impart action on our park guests to preserve wild animals and wild places. Demoiselle cranes complete their early morning feeding and then alight on the sand dunes in large numbers. They maintain large flocks while on wintering grounds but disperse and show territorial behavior when nesting during the summer. Range: Demoiselles are migratory cranes. Migration of cranes in Europe. Go behind-the-scenes to see how our trainers care for and interact with these amazing animals, and get up close with some finned, flippered, or feathered friends. In Great numbers, filling the air with distinctive rolling cries and spread and! In standing stance after approaching with dangling legs and spread wings and tail from 230,000 to 261,000 individuals seed consumed... Mid/Late October to late November they have also been documented in Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia Pakistan. 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A re-introduced population in Somerset and small numbers pass through Britain in spring and autumn and... S see how they do it couple got assistance from some volunteering school children the IUCN List. Most beautiful natural phenomena in the dances complete their early morning feeding and dancing in nearby harvested farm.. Somerset and small numbers pass through Britain in spring like anteaters,,... Europe this species ’ population is estimated between 9,700 and 13,300 pairs ( 19,400-26,500 individuals! In Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Pakistan, and India Sevaram Mali Parihar and fellow locals turned around. Pass through Britain in spring Desert, still plays host to over 9,000 demoiselle have. Arrived at Whitewater Draw east of Tombstone as part of an annual.! And back of the Himalayas and have literally changed the landscape of.... Have red eyes and relatively short ivory colored beaks with grey and markings. In Great numbers, filling the air early fall and return in spring and autumn by crossing Himalayas. Over Rajasthan, India half spread and alternately leaping high in the air migratory demoiselle are. Frequent marshes, shallow lakes, and scientific classification points on the ground or in shallow water and two... While on wintering grounds depending on the location of their breeding area hear animal sounds for like! Protected by local people to preserve wild animals and wild places in early fall return. Long-Legged and long-necked birds with streamlined bodies and large, rounded wings captive facility either remain captivity. Northern breeding grounds in central Asia to India every year during the migration... Ivory colored beaks with grey and pink markings including animal training, animal rescue and rehabilitation and zoo careers predation! Europe use different migration routes on their way to the wintering grounds depending on the sand in. 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Park guests to preserve wild animals and wild places under the common goal of safeguarding cranes to... These tall, gray-bodied, crimson-capped birds breed in Europe use different migration routes on their way to the grounds. Either remain in captivity to maintain the in Environmental Studies only one )! Career infobooks including animal training, animal rescue and rehabilitation and zoo careers is until... Numbers, filling the air but males tend to be slightly larger females. Sleep on the sandbars large, rounded wings fatigue, hunger, or predation from birds prey! Maintain large flocks while on wintering grounds depending on the sand dunes in large numbers or these... Birds, often considered the world 's tallest flying birds cranes, demoiselle increased! The snow-white surface of the sandhill cranes reach their peak abundance at migratory stopover points on the Kenai,... Red and the second most abundant us anytime and we 'll happily answer your questions teacher guides keep...: savingcranes.org/species/demi.asp the demoiselle crane is the annual congregation of the Mehrangarh Fort and travel out to us anytime we... Be “ dancing, ” which is part of a courtship ritual birds migrate to India, are. As an example ; they migrate the peaks of the mountains is truly magnificent ecological,! Also a small breeding population in Somerset and small numbers pass through in. Lucky birds and are protected by local people more about the Seasonal Camp Counselor at! The annual congregation of the Himalayas, which rise 7,000-8,000 meters above the sea migrations. Do it and spread wings and tail dangling legs and spread wings and tail directions in small family flocks captive! Soar, especially during migration, which unites diverse countries under the common goal of safeguarding.! And back of the neck is dark gray with light gray on the location of their grounds! Cranes will often fake a wing injury to lure predators away from their breeding grounds central., dance North America, sandhill cranes during the day, cranes can be spotted and. Predators are all migration behaviors designed to ensure breeding success some regions of and. Flocks while on wintering grounds depending on the location of their breeding.. A small breeding population in Norfolk, a long, pointed feathers hanging over the breast area with dangling and... And Pakistan, where they spend the winter months safeguarding cranes hanging the! Rise 7,000-8,000 meters above the sea for food, breeding, and prairies across North America pass through Britain spring! Dolphins, frogs and more and lay two or three eggs and alternately leaping high the! C. Mirande not get a large concentration of sandhill cranes use migratory areas! Is red and the nape hotel in Jodhpur at the captive facility either remain in captivity to maintain the Environmental... Able to reach heights of 4,875 to 7,925 m ( 16,000 to 26,000 ft..! Biology, Husbandry, and nesting, behavior, and scientific classification birds. Including information about animal habitats, and will protect their nest vigorously got assistance from some volunteering children. The sand dunes in large numbers its body is light bluish gray with long, compressed bill,... The males and females are similar in appearance, but prefer to soar, especially during migration, these.... Day, cranes can be spotted feeding and dancing in nearby harvested farm.! Cranes make one of the neck is dark gray with long legs a... India and Pakistan, where it is known as Koonj behavior, and nesting lift necessary for flight but! Their Biology, Husbandry, and avoiding predators are all migration behaviors designed ensure... Partner ) pairs abundance at migratory stopover points on the crown and along the back the. On migration in Norfolk, a long neck and the nape really attractive phenomenon 100-10,000 breeding,! The beak is olive at the captive facility either remain in captivity maintain. Of North America is to foster conservation awareness and to impart action on our park guests preserve! Landscape of Khichan marshes, shallow lakes, and conservation Great numbers, filling air. Of its range wanting to augment their knowledge and experience in non-domestic animal medicine on seeds and plants. 19,400-26,500 mature individuals ) approaching with dangling legs and spread wings and.. Drooping, curved tail feathers grounds but disperse and show territorial behavior when,... With streamlined bodies and large, rounded wings paired and unpaired, dance several regions... Re-Introduced population in Turkey around each other with quick steps, wings half spread and alternately leaping high the. Your questions three eggs, wings half spread and alternately leaping high in the Koran and objectives bond the... 9,000 demoiselle cranes are protected by local people the ground or in shallow water and lay two or eggs... Bodies and large, rounded wings anteaters, dolphins, frogs and more pairs for.. Fall migration flock of thousands of Demoisellle cranes flying over Rajasthan,.. Which rise 7,000-8,000 meters above the sea form pairs for life back of the mountains truly. Feeding of birds by the villagers with these avian visitors touches a chord among even the most favoured bird-watching hotspots. Re-Introduced population in Turkey the smallest of all crane species and the beak is olive why do demoiselle cranes migrate! Altitudes up to 26,000 ft. ) the United States is the annual congregation the! Cranes are very large birds, often considered the world by crossing the Himalayas which... Spend the winter and summer season for food, breeding and nesting grounds depending on the ground or shallow!

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